[vc_row row_type=”row” use_row_as_full_screen_section=”no” type=”full_width” oblique_section=”no” text_align=”left” css_animation=””][vc_column][ultimate_heading main_heading=”Candidate brief” main_heading_color=”#000000″ sub_heading_color=”#000000″ main_heading_style=”font-weight:bold;” main_heading_font_size=”desktop:36px;”]

“This patient has been feeling generally unwell for some time.  Please examine their respiratory system and present your findings to the examiners.”

[/ultimate_heading][vc_empty_space image_repeat=”no-repeat”][vc_video link=”https://vimeo.com/138191712″][vc_empty_space image_repeat=”no-repeat”][vc_row_inner row_type=”row” type=”full_width” use_row_as_full_screen_section_slide=”no” text_align=”left” css_animation=””][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][stat_counter icon_size=”32″ counter_title=”Station Time” counter_value=”20″ counter_suffix=” minutes” speed=”3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][stat_counter icon_size=”32″ counter_title=”Time for this encounter” counter_value=”10″ counter_suffix=” minutes” speed=”3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][stat_counter icon_size=”32″ counter_title=”Maximum time to examine your patient” counter_value=”6″ counter_suffix=” minutes” speed=”3″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/4″][stat_counter icon_size=”32″ counter_title=”Minimum time for discussion and questions” counter_value=”4″ counter_suffix=” minutes” speed=”3″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_empty_space image_repeat=”no-repeat”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row row_type=”row” use_row_as_full_screen_section=”no” type=”full_width” oblique_section=”no” text_align=”left” css_animation=””][vc_column][vc_accordion style=”accordion”][vc_accordion_tab title=”Common examiner questions”][vc_column_text]Common examiner questions include the following:

  1. What do you think this patient has?
  2. How would you like to investigate this patient next?
  3. What do you think the underlying cause of this patient’s signs is?

[/vc_column_text][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Diagnosis and clinical signs”][vc_column_text]This patient has apical crepitations in their right lung and otherwise a normal respiratory examination.[/vc_column_text][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Discussion”][vc_column_text]

Pulmonary fibrosis scars and thickens the tissue around and between the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This makes it more difficult for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream. The damage can be caused by many different things including airborne toxins in the workplace, certain lung diseases, radiation directed to cancers in the lung or breast, and even some types of medical treatments.
Long-term exposure to a number of toxins and pollutants can damage lungs. These may include: Silica dust, Asbestos fibers, Grain dust, Birds or animal droppings.

Some people who receive radiation therapy for lung or breast cancer show signs of lung damage months or sometimes years after the initial treatment. The severity of the damage depends on: How much of the lung was exposed to radiation, the total amount of radiation administered, whether chemotherapy also was used or presence of underlying lung disease.

Apical lung damage can also result from:

  • Tuberculosis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Scleroderma

As this patient’s fibrosis is clinically predominant at the apex, candidates would be expected to tailor their differentials accordingly to reflect this.[/vc_column_text][/vc_accordion_tab][vc_accordion_tab title=”Specimen case presentation”][vc_column_text]”This patient has crepitations at their right lung apex.  There are a range of possible causes including tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis.  I would like to proceed by taking a full history and arranging a chest radiograph.”[/vc_column_text][/vc_accordion_tab][/vc_accordion][/vc_column][/vc_row]